A to Z

Active mass

is a material which during discharging of cell provides electric energy due to the chemical reaction and throughout the charging returns back to its original state.

Battery capacity

is the amount of electric charge which can deliver at the rated voltage. Capacity is measured in units such as amp-hour (Ah). For exemple: C10 means that the battery with stated capacity should provide for 10 hours discharge current equal to one tenth of the nominal capacity.

Charge cycle

is the process of charging a rechargeable battery and discharging it as required into a load. The term is typically used to specify a battery's expected life, as the number of charge cycles affects life more than the mere passage of time.

Deep discharge

is discharging the battery fully before recharging.


is a liquid or solid substance that contents free ions with positive and negative chargé and conducts electricity.

Final charge voltage

is prescribed value of a cell/battery voltage at which the proces of charging is considered as completed.

Final discharge voltage

is prescribed value of a cell/battery voltage at which the proces of discharging is considered as completed.

Incomplete charging

is charging that was terminated sooner than the battery showed the signs of full charge. If this process is repeated in the cyclic operation of the battery and if the battery is not subsequently fully charged then there could occure a process of sulfation and the battery could be irreversibly demaged.

Lifetime of battery

is the time for which the battery works according to the prescribed conditions. It is stated as the number of cycles (charge-discharge) or as the time for which is battery functional.


is a phenomenon in batteries in which internal chemical reactions reduce the stored charge of the battery without any connection between the electrodes. Self-discharge decreases the shelf-life of batteries and causes them to initially have less than a full charge when actually put to use.


means a reduction of battery capacity due to the formation of sulfur crystals on the plates of active mass (electrodes).

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Auto SAS Ltd. is a company based in Solnice. The main specializations include handling, municipal and cleaning equipment - a wide selection of new, used or reconditioned machines, including expert advice and service. The assortment includes Toyota forklifts of various specifications - electric trucks or counterbalanced trucks, warehouse equipment like hand pallet trucks, powered pallet and stacker trucks or reach trucks, models of municipal Multicar vehicles, cleaning and sweeping machines Hako and slope mowers.